Monthly Archives: September 2015

Johann Gutenberg

Week 4: Johann Gutenberg

.

Read K – 6: Johann Gutenberg and the Amazing Printing Press by Bruce Koscielniak

7 – 8:  Johannes Gutenberg:  The Printer Who Gave Words to the World by Stephen Feinstein

Note:  Book covers were made from leather during the Renaissance.  The Lettering used for books at this time was Gothic.

Discuss:

  • Who first invented the idea of printing? (Chinese)
  • How were books made before the printing press? (by hand)
  • Who wrote them? (usually scribes, monks in monasteries)
  • What was used for paper before the printing press was invented? (parchment: animal skins)
  • What were book covers made from? (leather)
  • How long did these books take to make? (months)
  • Before the printing press, could most people read? (no)
  • Name Gutenberg’s 3 important inventions?
  1. Metal type
  2. New ink that would stick to the type
  3. Press that would push paper onto the type
  • What style lettering was used during the Renaissance? (Gothic style)
  • Why were letters made in reverse? (printing always reverses the letters)
  • What was Gutenberg’s most famous book? (Latin Bible or Gutenberg Bible)

Questions for Grades 7 & 8:

  • Where did Gutenberg learn metal working skills? (At the mint where his father was an official)
  • Why did Gutenberg want to keep his invention a secret? (So others would not steal his work until he had a good business going.)
  • Why did Gutenberg have to invent a new metal alloy for his type? (Metal had to be hard enough to withstand the printing process but it also had to have a lower melting point so it could be easily cast into type.)
  • What was the first book Gutenberg printed? (Schoolbook on Latin Grammar, Ars Grammatica)
  • T/F Gutenberg printed Indulgences, papers that were sold by the Catholic church that promised people forgiveness of sins. (True)
  • Why did Fust sue Gutenberg? (Gutenberg didn’t pay him the money he owed him in time.)
  • How did Fust acquire Gutenberg’s printing press? (The court ordered that Gutenberg had to give Fust his printing press since he couldn’t pay him back.)
  • How was Gutenberg able to start printing again? (The Town Clerk gave him money to start a new printing press.)
  • Why were more people able to read after Gutenberg’s invention? (Books were printed cheaply, more became available, more people could buy them and wanted to learn; books were also printed in more languages people could understand and reading became easier.)

Activities: K – 2:  Make your own potato stamp using directions from this site: http://www.fun-stuff-to-do.com/easy-crafts-for-kids-8.html Try to create a backwards letter on one half of the potato so kids can learn how letter stamps had to be created in reverse.

3 – 5: Write your favorite Bible verse or poem using this Gutenberg font: http://fontm.com/gutenberg-textura-font/ Then, write your first and last name in reverse as Gutenberg did.  Next hold it up to a mirror to see if you’ve done it correctly (and of course, to read it!).

6 – 8: Read the article on this site about the printing press: http://teacher.scholastic.com/scholasticnews/magazines/junior/pdfs/JUNIOR-033009-REPRO-01.pdf  then, complete the worksheet that follows it.

Copyright September 27th, 2015 by Gwen Fredette

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Charlotte Mason, Exploration, Reformation, Renaissance

Illuminated Manuscripts

Week 3: Illuminated Manuscripts

.

Read K – 8: Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf

Discuss:

  • What were illuminated manuscripts? (Books with hand-painted pictures and designs painted throughout the book.)
  • How were books printed during Medieval times? (by hand; by a scribe)
  • What was used to create the gold color in books? (gold leaf)
  • What was parchment made from? (animal skins)
  • What was used for pens? (goose feathers)
  • What food was used for all of the paints? (egg)
  • What was used to create black ink? (soot)
  • What was used to create the following colors:
    • Red ? (red roots of madder plant)
    • Green? (parsley)
    • Yellow? (saffron flowers)
    • Bright red? (vermilion)
    • Blue (lapis luzuli: a powdered blue stone)

Questions from internet site:

  • What 3 people were involved in the creation of illuminations? (the scribe, the parchmenter, and the illuminator)
  • What was the first culture known to have illuminated manuscripts? (Ancient Egyptians)
  • What does “illumination” mean? (to fill with light)
  • Did common people own illuminated manuscripts? (no, only the very wealthy)

Activities: K – 2: Illuminate a letter of the alphabet according to the instructions provided on the site listed above.
3 – 5:  Have students write out the “Our Father” from Matthew 6: 9 – 13 (See Below) Then have students illuminate their writing using designs, pictures, and gold glitter. Remember, the first letter in a paragraph or on a page was often much larger than all the other letters and usually contained a picture inside it. Therefore the “O” in the “Our Father” should be huge and contain a picture.

“Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name,
your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us today our daily bread.
And forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from the evil one.”

6 – 8:  Complete the worksheets on pages 3 – 8 of this pdf file from Middle Tennessee State University: http://library.mtsu.edu/tps/lessonplans&ideas/Lesson_Activity–Illuminated_Manuscripts.pdf

Copyright September 20th, 2015 by Gwen Fredette

 

 

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Charlotte Mason, Exploration, Reformation, Renaissance

Prince Henry

Week 2: Prince Henry, the Navigator

.

Read K – 8: Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher

Discuss:

  • What country was Prince Henry from? (Portugal)
  • Why did Prince Henry want to find a fast, simple way to India? (Riches, silks, spices)
  • Why didn’t Prince Henry know how to get there by sea? (No good maps back then; no one had ever done it.)
  • Why didn’t sailors want to sail that far south? (thought they might boil, thought earth was flat)
  • What special school did Prince Henry begin? (school of navigation)
  • What groups of people did Prince Henry bring to the school and how do you think each group aided Prince Henry?

1.)  ship captains – experience sailing the seas

2.)  navigators- experience telling direction at sea

3.)   mapmakers –experience making maps

4.)   astronomers- experience studying the stars and what constellations would be visible during certain times of the year

5.)  geographers- experience studying the shape of the earth

  • What 3 devices did Prince Henry improve so sailors could find their way at sea? (Astrolabe, quadrant, & compass)
  • Why do you think Prince Henry made his ship captains make maps, chart currents, winds, & depths, & keep logs? (to make it easier for future sailors and captains to know the easiest way to approach their destination)
  • What is the name of the new ship his ship builders designed? (Caravel)
  • What terrible practice did Henry’s ships begin to make money? (slavery)
  • Did Henry sail on his ships while he lead the school of navigation? (no)
  • What famous man finally reached India by sailing around Africa? (Vasco da Gama)
  • Did Henry get to see Vasco da Gama reach India?  (no)  Why? (he died )
  • What kind of ship did Columbus sail? (a caravel)
  • Do ship captains still keep ship logs today? (yes)

Activities: 

K – 2: Color a caravel ship: https://ureadthru.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/c333e-caravel_ship_linear.jpg

Grades 3 & up: Make a map of Prince Henry’s & Portuguese explorers’ voyages using this blank map: http://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/pdf/e_hemis.pdf

and these sites for help:

Then, Label the following:

  • Found Madeira: 1420
  • Found Azores: 1427
  • Sailed past Cape Bojador: 1434
  • Portuguese sailor sailed around Congo River: 1482
  • Bartolomeu Dias sailed around Cape of Good Hope: 1488
  • Vasco da Gama reached Calcutta, India: 1498

6 – 8: Complete mapwork for grades 3 & up.  (See above.) Then, read these two articles about the beginning of the slave trade:

Next in paragraph form, answer the following questions:  How were the Portuguese responsible for the beginning of the slave trade?  How were the Africans responsible for the slave trade?  Do you think African natives could have destroyed the trading outpost if they had tried?  Why or why not?

Copyright September 17th, 2015 by Gwen Fredette

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Charlotte Mason, Exploration, Reformation, Renaissance

Renaissance Overview

Week 1: Renaissance Overview

.

Read K – 2: Read “Note” (see below).  Then do “Renaissance Coloring” worksheet (from “Activities” section)before asking your students the discussion questions.

4 – 6: Read this article on the internet: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance.php and read “Note” (see below)

7 – 8: Your Travel Guide to Renaissance Europe by Nancy Day

Note:  The Renaissance was a period of time after the Middle Ages when people became interested once again in art, education, music, theatre, science, and mathematics.  These subjects were a regular part of society during ancient Greek and Roman periods, but pursuit of these subjects had almost disappeared during the Dark & Middle Ages.  The word Renaissance means “Rebirth” or “New Beginning”.  It began in the country of Italy in Europe.  Many new achievements and changes were made during this time.  Artwork became more realistic.   Theatre became very popular.   The authority of the Catholic church was challenged.  The printing press was invented and books became more common.  Explorers travelled to new parts of the world.  Scientists made new discoveries about the heavens.

Discuss:

  • In what country did the Renaissance begin? (Italy)
  • What does the word Renaissance mean? (rebirth or new beginning)
  • Name at least 6 disciplines of life that changed quite a bit during the Renaissance?  (art, theatre, church, books, exploration, & science)

Questions for grades 3 – 5:

  • Why is this time period called the Renaissance? (rebirth of art, classical writing, music, mathematics, history & philosophy)
  • T/F The Renaissance occurred in Asia. (F – Europe)
  • What were the most important cities of the Renaissance? (Rome, Venice, & Florence)
  • Name the 2 most famous artists of the Renaissance? (Michelangelo & Leonardo Di Vinci)

Questions for grades 6 – 8:

  • What languages were spoken during the Renaissance? (Spanish, English, French, German, & Tuscan (Italian)
  • What were the 3 most famous cities known for? (Florence: wealth & artistry; Rome: Pope head of Catholic church; Venice: center of trade)
  • T/F Spices were very valuable during the Renaissance? (T)
  • Was it common for people to travel great distances at this time? (no; most people didn’t go more than 15 miles from home)
  • How did people travel? (walking, boat, cart pulled by horses, oxen, or mules)
  • T/F During the Renaissance, maps were pretty accurate. (F)
  • What were some of the forms of government during the Renaissance? (some feudalism, monarchies, papal rule)
  • Of what class were most people at this time? (Poor: peasants)
  • What was a patron? (Rich person who provided money for artists, scientists, & explorers to do their work)
  • What was an apprentice? A master? (Master was someone very skilled at a craft; an apprentice was a young person learning the craft.)
  • Were apprentices and masters poor, middle, or upper class? (middle)
  • What religion were most people during the Renaissance? (Catholic)
  • What was the Spanish Inquisition? (a group of judges who investigated heretics [people who didn’t follow the church’s teachings])
  • What happened to many people found guilty of heresy? (killed)
  • How did clothes show wealth? (fabrics & dyes that were expensive were worn by the rich; rich had many clothes; poor might only have 1 set of clothes)
  • T/F Clothes during the Renaissance were bright and colorful. (T)
  • What was the Vatican? (Pope’s headquarters)
  • T/F Most girls learned to read and write. (F)
  • What did people do for entertainment during the Renaissance? (theatre, chess, tournaments, jousts, races)
  • How many meals did people eat a day? (2)
  • What did they eat? (rich: birds, deer, boar, feasts with expensive spices; poor: soups, mushes, bread, some fish, cheese, eggs, & poultry)
  • What did people drink at the time? (milk, wine, beer, or ale; water was too dirty to drink)
  • What did merchants sell? (food, fabric, spices, jewelry, gold, jewels)
  • Did most people own books? (no)
  • What was the plague? (terrible disease also called the black death because it caused painful, black swellings; many died)
  • T/F Renaissance Europe was a peaceful place. (F: many wars & revolts)
  • T/F People bathed often. (F)

Activities: K – 2: Renaissance coloring page: Renaissance coloring

3 – 5:  Renaissance and Reformation word find: Ren word find

6 – 8:  Choose one of the following essays:

  • Write a 5 paragraph 3 proof essay discussing three things you learned about the Renaissance from reading this book.
  • Would you like to live during the Renaissance? Why or why not? (5 paragraph, 3 proof essay.)

 Copyright September 10th, 2015 by Gwen Fredette

Leave a comment

Filed under Exploration, Reformation, Renaissance

Book List: Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration

Book List: Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration

Greetings Fellow Homeschoolers!  Throughout the summer, in response to numerous requests, I will be posting book lists that correspond with each unit study on this U READ Thru History blog.   Following is a list of titles (organized by grade level) that will be used for the upcoming Year 4 unit study on the Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration (see the outline tab at the top of this blog).  If your library does not carry these books, you may be able to obtain them through interlibrary loan.  Of course, all of these titles can also be purchased on Amazon.com or abebooks.com.

May God continue to bless your homeschool adventure!

– Gwen

Grades K – 2:

  1. None
  2. Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher
  3. Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf
  4. Johann Gutenberg and the Amazing Printing Press by Bruce Koscielniak
  5. Neo Leo by Gene Barretta
  6. Watch this video about Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4mii56V2xA
  7. Animated Hero Classics: Christopher Columbus by NEST Entertainment OR Read: Christopher Columbus by Stephen Krensky
  8. Land Ho! (Pages 8 & 9 only) by Nancy Parker
  9. Read this brief biography of Martin Luther on this site: http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0300-martin-luther.php
  10. None
  11. Land Ho! By Nancy Winslow Parker (pages 14 & 15 only) & watch this youtube video about Ferdinand Magellan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijSk7uv4nbI
  12. Good Queen Bess by Diane Stanley
  13. William Shakespeare and the Globe by Aliki
  14. 12th Night by Bruce Coville
  15. A MidSummer Night’s Dream by Bruce Coville
  16. The Tempest by Bruce Coville

Grade 3:

  1. Read this article on the internet: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance.php
  2. Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher
  3. Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf
  4. Johann Gutenberg and the Amazing Printing Press by Bruce Koscielniak
  5. Neo Leo by Gene Barretta
  6. Michelangelo by Diane Stanley
  7. Animated Hero Classics: Christopher Columbus by NEST Entertainment OR Read: Christopher Columbus by Stephen Krensky
  8. Land Ho! (Pages 8 & 9 only) by Nancy Parker
  9. Read this brief biography of Martin Luther on this site: http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0300-martin-luther.php
  10. John Calvin by Simonetta Carr (Christian Biographies for Young Readers)
  11. Land Ho! By Nancy Winslow Parker (pages 14 & 15 only) & watch this youtube video about Ferdinand Magellan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijSk7uv4nbI
  12. Good Queen Bess by Diane Stanley
  13. Bard of Avon: The Story of William Shakespeare by Diane Stanley (read also the “Postscript” at the end of the book)
  14. 12th Night by Bruce Coville
  15. A MidSummer Night’s Dream by Bruce Coville
  16. The Tempest by Bruce Coville

Grade 4:

  1. Read this article on the internet: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance.php
  2. Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher
  3. Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf
  4. Johann Gutenberg and the Amazing Printing Press by Bruce Koscielniak
  5. Neo Leo by Gene Barretta
  6. Michelangelo by Diane Stanley
  7. Christopher Columbus: The Discovery of the New World by Carole Gallagher
  8. The Story of Amerigo Vespucci, Forgotten Voyager by Ann Alper Chps 4 – end
  9. Spy for the Night Riders by Dave & Neta Jackson
  10. John Calvin by Simonetta Carr (Christian Biographies for Young Readers)
  11. Magellan’s World by Stuart Walman
  12. Good Queen Bess by Diane Stanley
  13. Bard of Avon: The Story of William Shakespeare by Diane Stanley (read also the “Postscript” at the end of the book)
  14. 12th Night by Bruce Coville
  15. A MidSummer Night’s Dream by Bruce Coville
  16. The Tempest by Bruce Coville

Grade 5:

  1. Read this article on the internet: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance.php
  2. Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher
  3. Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf
  4. Johann Gutenberg and the Amazing Printing Press by Bruce Koscielniak
  5. Leonardo: Beautiful Dreamer by Robert Byrd
  6. Michelangelo by Diane Stanley
  7. Christopher Columbus: The Discovery of the New World by Carole Gallagher
  8. The Story of Amerigo Vespucci, Forgotten Voyager by Ann Alper Chps 4 – end
  9. Spy for the Night Riders by Dave & Neta Jackson
  10. John Calvin by Simonetta Carr (Christian Biographies for Young Readers)
  11. Magellan’s World by Stuart Walman
  12. Good Queen Bess by Diane Stanley
  13. The Play’s the Thing by Ruth Turk
  14. 12th Night by Bruce Coville
  15. A MidSummer Night’s Dream by Bruce Coville
  16. The Tempest by Bruce Coville

Grade 6:

  1. Your Travel Guide to Renaissance Europe by Nancy Day
  2. Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher
  3. Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf
  4. Johann Gutenberg and the Amazing Printing Press by Bruce Koscielniak
  5. Leonardo: Beautiful Dreamer by Robert Byrd
  6. Michelangelo by Diane Stanley
  7. Christopher Columbus: The Discovery of the New World by Carole Gallagher
  8. The Story of Amerigo Vespucci, Forgotten Voyager by Ann Alper Chps 4 – end
  9. Spy for the Night Riders by Dave & Neta Jackson
  10. John Calvin by Simonetta Carr (Christian Biographies for Young Readers)
  11. Magellan’s World by Stuart Walman
  12. Good Queen Bess by Diane Stanley
  13. The Play’s the Thing by Ruth Turk
  14. 12th Night AND Romeo & Juliet by Bruce Coville
  15. A MidSummer Night’s Dream AND Hamlet by Bruce Coville
  16. The Tempest AND MacBeth by Bruce Coville

Grades 7 & 8:

  1. Your Travel Guide to Renaissance Europe by Nancy Day
  2. Prince Henry the Navigator by Leonard Fisher
  3. Marguerite Makes a Book by Bruce Robertson AND the information on this site: http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/kmason/images/Illuminations1.pdf
  4. Johannes Gutenberg: The Printer Who Gave Words to the World by Stephen Feinstein
  5. Leonardo Da Vinci by John Phillips
  6. Michelangelo by Philip Wilkinson
  7. Christopher Columbus: by Peter & Connie Roop
  8. The Story of Amerigo Vespucci, Forgotten Voyager by Ann Alper (the whole book)
  9. Luther DVD (2003)
  10. John Calvin by Simonetta Carr (Christian Biographies for Young Readers)
  11. Ferdinand Magellan by Betty Burnett
  12. Elizabeth I by Simon Adams
  13. The Play’s the Thing by Ruth Turk
  14. 12th Night AND Romeo & Juliet by Bruce Coville
  15. A MidSummer Night’s Dream AND Hamlet by Bruce Coville
  16. The Tempest AND MacBeth by Bruce Coville

Copyright September 2nd, 2015 by Gwen Fredette

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Book List, Charlotte Mason, Exploration, Reformation, Renaissance