Week 4: Peter the Great
Read K – 8: Peter the Great by Diane Stanley
- What was a tsar? (ruler of Russia)
- What was Russia like before Peter became the tsar? (had been the same for hundreds of years – nothing new or modern)
- In what ways was Peter an unusual Tsar?(never wanted the best position or to be noticed all the time – felt that he should start at the bottom and earn his way up to be the best)
- Name some things Peter learned to do that most Tsars didn’t learn to do? (became a carpenter, repaired watches, learned about the human body, learned about construction of bridges)
- Name some good and bad changes Peter made to Russia? (forced people to shave their beards, wear shorter clothes, and live where they did not want to live; encouraged women to eat with husbands and not to be married forcibly, taxed people heavily, forced boys to serve in the army)
- How did Peter die? (of an illness)
- Why do you think Peter was called “The Great”? (Answers will vary, including he modernized Russia and made Russia more powerful.)
All Grades: Using this site: https://sites.google.com/site/russiasabsolutemonarchs/home/peter-the-great
And this map: https://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/pdf/cn_asia_pol.pdf
Create your own map of Peter the Great’s Empire. Add St. Petersburg to your map.
K – 4: Learn how to draw St Basil’s Cathedral, one of the most famous buildings in Russia. It was built before Peter the Great became tsar. Use this site for help: http://www.dragoart.com/tuts/15194/1/1/how-to-draw-the-kremlin,-moscow-kremlin,-saint-basil-cathedral.htm
Here is a photo of the actual cathedral: http://famouswonders.com/st-basils-cathedral-in-moscow/
5 – 6: Read these worksheets about Peter the Great and answer the questions following the worksheets: http://www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk/lib_res_pdf/0113.pdf
7 – 8: Read these worksheets about Peter the Great: http://www.timewarptrio.com/teachers-parents/lessons/pdf/twt-lesson-russia.pdf and create a bio Poem about Peter using the template the site gives you for help.
Copyright September 30th, 2016 by Gwen Fredette
Week 3: Sir Isaac Newton
Read K – 5: Isaac Newton and the Laws of Motion by Andrea Gianopoulos
6 – 8: Who was Isaac Newton by Janet Pascal OR Isaac Newton: The Scientist Who Changed Everything by Philip Steele OR Isaac Newton (Giants of Science) by Kathleen Krull (recommended for grades 7 & 8)
- What did Isaac like to do with his free time when he was little? (invent mechanical toys, machines, contraptions; he also just liked to sit and think)
- Why did Isaac have to leave Cambridge University? (Bubonic Plague)
- Newton is well-known for his law of …? (gravity)
- Newton’s book described three laws of …. (motion)
- Newton’s 1st law: Objects in motion stay in motion unless what? (an outside force makes it change)
- Newton’s 3rd law: When you push something, what happens? (it pushes you back)
- T/F Newton invented a better telescope? (T)
- What new math did Newton invent? (Calculus)
- T/F Isaac Newton was knighted by Queen Anne. (T)
Questions for Grades 6 – 8:
- Why was Isaac angry with his mother? (married again and left him with his grandmother)
- Name some of Isaac’s early inventions as a boy? (sun dial, water clock)
- Newton’s 3rd law: Newton discovered that for every action there is an opposite ….? (reaction)
- White sunlight is actually a mixture of what? (7 colors of the rainbow)
- T/F Isaac Newton was well-liked and popular most of his life? (F)
- T/F Isaac Newton liked farming. (F)
- Name some of Newton’s mathematical discoveries and inventions? (Calculus – compares rate of change using geometry and algebra – can be used to work out the length of curved lines; learned about atoms; discovered light was made of a range of colors; gravity governs the planets as well as objects on earth)
- Newton’s 2nd law: The rate of change in velocity of an object depends on what two things? (mass & force)
- What was Alchemy? (early version of chemistry; Alchemists tried to turn one metal into another, even gold)
- Why did he keep his alchemy a secret? (Did not want to be accused of black magic or religious crimes)
- What was the name of Newton’s most famous book? (Principia Mathematica)
- T/F Newton was often irritable and angry. (T)
- T/F Newton worked for many years at a mint. (T)
K – 3: Isaac Newton coloring page: http://www.crayola.com/free-coloring-pages/print/isaac-newton–gravity-coloring-page/
4 – 5: Complete the first worksheet on this pdf file: http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/science/pdfs/gravity.pdf
6 – 8: Choose one of the following essay topics:
- Who do you believe was the more important scientist, Galileo or Isaac Newton? Why? Which would you prefer to have met at the time? Why? Explain your answers.
- Describe what you believe to be Isaac Newton’s strengths and weaknesses (in character as well as abilities). Why do you feel as you do?
- Discuss 3 of Newton’s inventions or discoveries. Which do you believe to be the most interesting? Why?
Copyright September 23rd, 2016 by Gwen Fredette
Week 2: Galileo
Read K – 5: I, Galileo by Bonnie Christensen
6 – 8: Galileo, The Genius Who Faced the Inquisition by Philip Steele OR Who Was Galileo? by Patricia Demuth
Some of Galileo’s inventions included a better compass, a better telescope, a microscope thermometer, water pump, and a scale.
- What did Galileo’s father want him to be? (a doctor)
- What subject was Galileo’s choice of study? (mathematics)
- What falls faster, a heavy object or a light object? (they fall at the same speed)
- What were some of Galileo’s inventions? (better compass, a better telescope, a microscope thermometer, water pump, and a scale)
- What was the name of the Greek Philosopher that many people admired and trusted the writings of? (Aristotle)
- What new things did Galileo see through is telescope? (moon not smooth, infinite # of stars, Jupiter had 4 moons)
- Name one of Galileo’s books? (The Starry Messenger or Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations)
- What did Galileo believe was at the center of the universe? (the sun)
- What did Aristotle believe was at the center of the universe? (the earth)
- What church was upset about Galileo’s new theory? (Catholic church)
- Why was the Pope upset with Galileo? (believed he was represented as a fool in the book Galileo wrote.)
- What did Galileo stand trial for? (Heresy – teaching against the Catholic church)
- What punishment did the church inflict on him? (House imprisonment)
- What disability did Galileo have as he aged? (went blind, health suffered)
Questions for grades 6 – 8 only:
- Where was Galileo born? (Italy)
- What was Galileo’s father’s talent? (music)
- How was Galileo’s final book published? (Pages of his book were secretly smuggled out of his house in batches and taken to a Dutch printer in Holland)
K – 3: Using these images for help, draw a picture of a geocentric (earth centered) solar system – what people believed before Galileo — and then draw a picture of our actual (heliocentric) solar system:
4 – 5: Create a Galileo water clock according to the instructions on the last page this pdf worksheet: http://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/media/lrk_handout.pdf
6 – 8: Choose one of the following essay topics:
- Galileo’s father originally wanted him to become a doctor. If he had lived to see all that Galileo accomplished and then went through during the inquisition do you think he would have been proud? Explain your answer.
- Describe what you believe to be Galileo’s strengths and weaknesses (in character as well as abilities). Why do you feel as you do?
- Galileo’s books quickly became best sellers. People may not have believed his ideas but they certainly talked about them. If Galileo’s trial had been before a jury of his peers, rather than the Spanish Inquisition, do you think they would have found him guilty of going against the Church? Why or why not?
Copyright September 16th, 2016 by Gwen Fredette
Week 1: Enlightenment Thinkers & Scientific Revolution
Read K – 3: This topic is a bit complicated and heavy for this age group. I recommend skipping this lesson and moving on to “Week 2”.
4 – 5: Read these online worksheets: http://fliphtml5.com/eedw/hsij
6 – 8: View these two Youtube videos and take notes along with Mr. Byrd:
- The period of time during the a 16th, 17th & 18th centuries when there was a huge change in the way people thought of science (and mathematics) is called the …. ? ( The Scientific Revolution )
- Prior to the scientific revolution people found answers to questions about nature from where? (The Church, Bible Ancient Greece & Ancient Rome, Aristotle)
- During the Scientific Revolution people found these answers based on what? (Reason & Observation)
- Name 2 major figures during the Scientific Revolution? (Galileo, Isaac Newton)
- The period of time during the 17th & 18th centuries when there was a huge change in the way people thought of politics is called the …. ? ( The Enlightenment )
- Name at least 1 country where a revolution started based on the idea of Constitutionalism versus Absolutism? (United States or France)
Questions for grades 6 – 8 only:
- Name 5 new theories of scientific thought and who was responsible for each (answers given below):
- Copernicus – Heliocentric Theory – Sun center of Solar System
- Kepler – Planetary Motion – Planets move in elipses
- Galileo – Invented Telescope that could see the heavens – proved that what Copernicus & Kepler said was true (although people still didn’t believe him)
- Newton – Law of Gravity – Governs earth & space
- Harvey – Circulation of Blood – Blood circulates through body bringing oxygen to the rest of the body
- What were three results of the Scientific Revolution? (Reason & Observation rather than faith, scientific method [approach to looking at things], & tremendous growth in scientific knowledge)
- Name 5 Enlightenment thinkers and tell what each believed (answers given below):
- Hobbs – People are evil and selfish and need Monarchs to tell them what to do.
- Locke – People are born with 3 rights: Life, Liberty & property. Government should protect these three rights.
- Montesquieu – Believed in separation of powers, Executive, Legislative, & Judicial so no government had too much power.
- Rousseau – Government should be contract between leaders and people; if government fails to protect 3 basic rights, people have the right to back out of the contract and start their own government.
- Voltaire – Government should be separate from the church so there is greater tolerance and no religious bias from leaders.
- When people read the writings of these famous philosophers __________ were set off around the world? (Revolutions)
- In what 2 countries were there successful revolutions during the Enlightenment? (United States & France)
K – 3: None
4 – 5: On a separate sheet of paper answer the following questions:
- How did the Scientific Revolution change the way people think?
- What did people use instead of relying solely on the Bible?
- Name 2 major figures during the Scientific Revolution?
- The period of time during the 17th & 18th centuries when there was a huge change in the way people thought of politics is called the …. ?
- What is the difference between Absolutism and Constitutionalism?
- Look up the following Enlightenment values and write a definition for each: Reason, Progress Individualism, Secularism, Humanism, Freedom, & Equality
6 – 8: Complete these enlightenment worksheets: http://www.marion.kyschools.us/userfiles/457/Classes/15218/enlightenmentthinkersgallery.pdf?id=462925
Copyright September 11th, 2016 by Gwen Fredette
Greetings Fellow Homeschoolers!
Hope your summer has been fun and relaxing! Beginning next week , I will be posting history lesson plans on the “The Enlightenment”. The lessons will be similar in format to lessons you’ve already seen and used from this“U Read Thru History” site. Each week readings will be suggested for different grade levels, discussion questions will be listed, and activities will be suggested per grade level. I hope and pray these lessons will be a blessing to you and your family!
Following is the outline for The Enlightenment Unit Study:
Fall 2016 (World History)
The Enlightenment Unit Study
- Week 1: Enlightenment Thinkers & Scientific Revolution
- Week 2: Galileo
- Week 3: Sir Isaac Newton
- Week 4: Peter the Great
- Week 5: King Louis XIV (of France)
- Week 6: Mozart
- Week 7: King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, & the French Revolution
- Week 8: Advances in Flight
- Week 9: Napoleon
- Week 10: The Rosetta Stone
- Week 11: Beethoven
- Week 12: Great Literature: Hans Christian Andersen
- Week 13: Great Literature: The Brothers’ Grimm
- Week 14: Faraday & Watt
- Week 15: The Industrial Revolution
- Week 16: Louis Braille
- Week 17: Test: The Enlightenment Unit Study
If you have any questions about these History Lesson Plans, please feel free to email me. My email is firstname.lastname@example.org. If you’ve found great resources that might be a help to others using this curriculum, please feel free to write messages on the comments section of each post for others to see. Thanks! – Gwen